With more demand for customized equipment, there is growing interest in flexible automation solutions. These are configurable and scalable and account for variances in payload and speed, among other parameters.
In this webinar you’ll learn how configurable and scalable mechanics make flexible automation for machine builders a reality. Specifically, the webinar examines a range of linear motion components with a focus on the benefits of electric actuators including greater energy efficiency, flexibility and control.
This is the unedited transcript for webinar: Meeting the Motion Needs of Flexible Automation. Click here to watch the webinar on demand.
Hello everybody. Thanks for joining us for this webinar titled Meeting the Motion Needs of Flexible Automation brought to you by Design World, presented by Parker Hannifin and sponsored by Dynatect. My name is Miles Budimir, senior editor for motion control with Design World Magazine and I’ll be moderating the webinar. Jeremy Miller is our presenter today. Jeremy is a product manager for Parker Hannifin’s electromechanical and drives division and maintains responsibility for Parker’s linear mechanics products. Jeremy has served over 15 years in the motion control industry, working with a variety of technologies from fluid power to electromechanical control. He’s also worked in a variety of roles from sales and marketing to operations.
Before we get going, I’ll mention a few housekeeping points of order. At the bottom of your screen you’ll see a number of widget boxes. These can be moved and re-sized to your preferences. You can open, close, and change the layout as you like. This webinar will also be available at www.designworldonline.com. Also, at anytime during the webinar you can ask questions and after the webinar you will receive an answer via email. You can also tweet about the webinar or any interesting points that you hear, simply sign in through the Twitter box and you can also use the #DWWebinar. With that, I’ll hand it over to you Jeremy.
Great. Thank you Miles, and good morning and good afternoon to everyone. Thanks for tuning into our webinar today. The topic we will be covering today is that of flexible automation technologies and the ways in which electromechanical actuators can help solve some of the challenges presented by current day trends around designing flexible automation equipment. The goal of today’s presentation is to walk through an overview of the current industrial landscape, key trends effecting the market, and some of the ways that component suppliers specifically those featuring mechanical solutions are designing products to help solve some of the challenges associated with modern equipment. We will discuss various types of configurable and scalable mechanical solutions in terms of benefits they provide and the design principals and features employed to create these products. We’ll then take a look at some of the examples of how these products have been applied to provide real solutions and simplify design. Finally, we will review some of the other advantages of electromechanical animation and how this technology can be applied.
There are a number of hot trends in industrial automation today that are a response at least in part to a push for greater flexibility in automated equipment. I am sure that most of you have heard of the internet of things or perhaps more applicable to this conversation is the industrial internet of things, which describes the industrial network of devices embedded with electronic software and sensors able to collect and exchange data to more effectively and efficiently manage processes and equipment. For those of you that track the automation industry in Europe you may have heard of the term Industry 4.0, which is a European initiative designed to drive manufacturers to design and create smarter automated plants that can essentially think and respond on their own to changing dynamics on the plant floor. Another hot button topic in the automation world is that of collaborative robots, which have allowed for rapid re-purposing and re-deployment of mechanical automation. Finally, it continued focus on maximizing throughput and reducing down time on production equipment contrasts with an industry ever driving towards high mixed, low volume style of manufacturing. All of these trends together are creating a real need for flexible automation.
Speaking, automated equipment can be bucketed into one of three broad categories. Fixed automation is considered very inflexible and is a stationary permanent install on a plant floor designed to produce a single product. Introducing slightly more flexibility is that of programmable automation, which can allow for some change between products but only through employing a significant amount of labor to do so. Finally, flexible automation provides manufacturers the ability to rapidly and seamlessly employ changes to the product or process. Much of today’s manufacturing still occurs on six or programmable equipment but a shift is occurring to accommodate a demand for a maximized uptime and to support a low volume high mixed style of manufacturing. This allows manufacturers to support a greater amount of variability of products and respond more quickly to changing market dynamics within their industry and the associated shortened product life cycles.
Fixed automation, commonly called hard automation, relies on a very permanent set of operations designed to serve one and only one purpose. This was ideal for manufacturing floors of years past, which traditionally produced only a limited assortment of products at very large volumes and with limited variability. These fixed sequences within a machine cell utilized six mechanical constraints and a design for processing or assembly of a single product. Hard automation can be beneficial in that the upfront equipment cost relative to more flexible solutions is lower, additionally throughput is optimized if the machine is only ever running a single part. However, modularity was not a consideration within the original design intent and therefore converting machinery to support product variances is often financially impractical and unreasonably challenging to implement. A good example of is an automotive line where all day, every day, the same model vehicle is produced from the start where the sheet metal was stamped to the end of line where the complete car is produced. Imagine how difficult and costly it would be to convert this line from a Ford F150 to a Ford Focus.
As design strategies have evolved, changes in design intent have lead to machines integrating improved flexibility as compared to fixed equipment. Programmable automation, also referred to as manual changeover equipment, can accommodate some level of configurability after implementation and has become more commonplace in machine design. This incorporates the ability to write new code to perform new operations in combination with manual changeovers of the mechanical system to produce new products. This changeover process, while adding a level of flexibility, is often very labor intensive and requires significant machine downtime. A good example of this style of automation might be with machine tool, where today the machine is making a component part for a medical device and making thousands of pieces, and next week the machine will change to a different high volume part. This would require a new program to be written and fixturing a mechanical stroking to be adjusted.
The third and more modern approach to automated equipment is fully-flexible automation, sometimes referred to as soft automation. With this methodology, a combination of recipe control and flexible mechanical automation allows the machine operator to seamlessly convert from one process or product to another at the touch of a button. This means that not only can manufacturers produce a greater variety of products with a single machine but that they can also address a future state incorporating next generation products. Technological advancements in automation componentry have really paved the way for this next generation of flexible machinery.
Truly flexible equipment typically utilizes electromechanical automation to each positional control for quick and highly repeatable process changeover. This allows for a highly diverse range of products flowing through the line with little downtime associated with changeover between products. A good example here is with packaging equipment or package sizes may change from one hour to the next or even from one to the next package on the same line. It can be accomplished through sensing and input on package sizes. Traditionally the packaging space is highly dynamic and consumer good producers are constantly reinventing product packaging to retain competitive advantage and meet market demands. Flexible equipment allows for such changes with minimal overall impact and without the need to scrap costly machinery.
This graph serves to better represent the relationship of the three automation philosophies discussed relative to cost effectiveness. On the horizontal axis I’ve taught it the level of the product variation from low mix to high mix product lines for relative comparison, and on the vertical axis is cost effectiveness. You can see that once three product variability is introduced into the system, fixed automation becomes extremely ineffective from a cost stand point. Conversely flexible automation becomes more cost effective as product mix increases and becomes the optimal solution once a moderate mix is achieved. Finally, a programmable automation solution with some level of flexibility is less cost effective than fixed automation for single product lines but as some variability is introduced becomes more cost effective. As the product mix increases however the downtime associated with setup change increases cost and makes this a less attractive solution overall.
Flexible automation is accomplished and supported through utilization of the latest in automation technologies. Products like programmable automation controllers have been game changers by combining both motion and machine control in a single platform. This streamline approach allows for a single development environment as well as more tightly integrated hardware and software, improving cost and complexity. These controllers can support overall machine management as well as specific coordinated motion through serveral controlled actuation. Touch screens like HMIs allow for recipe control and on the fly adjustment from one process to another. These screens can be pre-programmed with a specific buttons and alarms and provide the operator the ability to evaluate upcoming system demand changes and select from pre-created recipes to change over the machine to accommodate different product or processes. Finally, electromechanical actuation over traditional fluid power grants truly infinite positioning to accommodate new product sizes and process changes. In addition, specific motion profiles can be created to address the needs of specific products flowing through the line.
When designing equipment to be truly flexible automation, there are a number of challenges that machine designers face. To enable the true value of soft automation, a system must be able to quickly and seamlessly change setups between products. To do this, the actuators used must be capable of addressing a multitude of positions within available work space. As machine builders are pushed more than ever to address custom and unique application challenges, component scale is a real challenge. Historically this may have been addressed by selecting differing families of automation components from one machine to the next to account for changes in speed payload or thrust. Increased throughput and reduced downtime have long been and continue to grow in importance with a push towards high mix low volume manufacturing, downtime due to changeover needs to be minimized but it’s also important that reliable componentry is selected to prevent premature failure. Finally, as the automation industry has evolved to become a truly global marketplace, machine builders are challenged with finding supplier partners that can match their global [inaudible 00:11:34].
With a multitude of challenges faced by machine designers creating flexible automation, how can manufacturers of electromechanical equipment, or more specifically mechanical stages, help to alleviate some of these challenges? At least part of the answer to that question is in designing scalable and configurable product platforms to address a broader range of application demands. This begs the question, what does the term “scalable and configurable” really mean? Mechanical stages that scalable were designed with the very specific intent of addressing a significant amount of variance in application demands, such as stroke length, changes in payload or moment load, thrust capacity, speed and precision.
There are a number of automation platforms that can be employed to provide this level of flexibility. Articulated robotic arms are one such solution that certainly have their place in flexible automation. Where traditional robotic arms were decided as fixed implants on a plant floor with the goal of producing one output. However, with the onset of collaborative robotics, articulated arm systems are more easily re-deployable for new applications than ever before. Linear mechanical stages offer their own level of flexibility. They can be deployed as single-axis or multi-axis orientations. As a single-axis stage, certainly they are very cost effective, but even in multi-axis configurations, typically Cartesian or gantry solutions are extremely cost effective relative to robotic arms. Typically, linear stages can achieve higher payload and precision and address a much larger footprint than robot arms.
The major types of articulated arm robots most commonly used in industry today are SCARA, six or in some cases seven axis arm, or collaborative robots. SCARA robots, which stands for Selective Compliance Articulated Robot Arm are robots that maintain four degrees of freedom in the X, Y, Z and one axis of rotation. They’re specialized for high-speed pickup pace but their primary shortcoming is they lack end-effector degrees of freedom. Articulated arm robots solve this by introducing additional rotary axes to give a full six degrees of freedom in X, Y, Z [inaudible 00:13:40].
When challenged with these traditional six-axis robots though is that they often operate at speeds and forces too dangerous for human intervention, requiring safety guarding. Collaborative robotics solve this by utilizing either elastomeric joints for compliance or forward-looking control loops to respond to the excess forces caused by contact. These robots had the added advantage of being relatively simple to re-deploy to other operations. They are however typically very costly and limited with respect to addressable [inaudible 00:14:11].
There are a number of advantages to using linear mechanics for multi-axis automation. One such is that they can be configured into a multitude of configurations that give exact functionality needed from a payload speed or stroke length sampling. Some examples include Cartesian stages which can be configured as two or three axis systems and often with the rotary data axis as the end-effector. The distinctive feature of these systems is that the axes are melted in such a way as to straddle the work surface by over-hanging it, without adding additional slave axes to guide the load. Gantry configurations incorporate this additional member to help support overhung loading. In this case, the dual axis supports the load on either side, with a perpendicular axis spanning the gap between them. The additional axis is commonly referred to as the prime axis. The configurations shown here represent XX prime and Y or Y prime. These are just a few examples of multi-axis gantry possibilities, but they help to demonstrate the flexibility capable for this style of multi-axis approach.
Utilizing electromechanical motion that can provide scalability, means you are able to size and design a solution to solve one problem today, but then can address variability down the road. Payload or stroke changes can be quickly accommodated. Additionally, automation that is scalable and configurable can achieve large variation from machine to machine, greatly reducing design complexity for machine builders. This may mean packaging Snickers bars today and moving stacks of potatoes tomorrow, but scalable motion can achieve this through modifying the configuration of the bearings, drive train and overall frame size all within the same family of products.
Shown here are a few of the most common types of drive train solutions found in electromechanical positioners. Ball screw and lead screw drives are recognized by their ability to produce high thrust forces but are limited with respect to speed. Ball screws have higher mechanical efficiency due to the moving bearing element and can achieve relatively high precision. Lead screws however have higher friction and limited duty cycle but are ideal for vertical axes, as are non-backdrivable. [inaudible 00:16:18] very high speed positioning and can configured to have extremely long strokes, in tens or even hundreds of feet, but are not as stiff and responsive as screws and do not carry the same precision. Linear motor drives are the best of both worlds, by providing very high speed long strokes and higher precision, but this all comes at a price as theses are typically the most expensive drive train type.
This graph gives a good representation of the characteristics described for each of the major drive train options. Each have their own advantages and disadvantages. For example, if today you have an application demanding long stroke, high speed, without precision, belt drive is ideal. However tomorrow your application is not at the same speed or stroke but demands higher thrust, a ball screw would be a better fit. The ability to achieve both applications from the same product family means the design effort is greatly simplified. electromechanical actuators that include standard configurable options for multiple drive trains, like Parker’s HMR actuator shown at the bottom here, allow the machine designer to cover a much broader range of thrust, speed and stroke variations from a single product family.
Here are a few common types of actuator guidance solutions. Slider bearings commonly utilize either polymer or bronze bushings gliding over a surface. These bearings are ideal for their low cost and ability to handle contamination. However, they have low payload capacity and are not as stiff, making them ideal for more point-to-point applications. Roller wheels are sealed and are typically very good in harsh environments and for high speed motion. The wheels are pre-loaded and utilize radial ball bearings, giving them greater stiffness and payload capacity. Re-circulating bearings like square rails offer some of the highest payload capacities available and have very stiff solution, making them ideal for high payload dynamic positioning applications. Finally, cross roller bearings feature line contact over point contact in ball bearings, giving them the ability to handle the highest payloads and extremely smooth [inaudible 00:18:17].
The graph here shows the common guidance technology stacked together. You can see here that all bearing technologies are different. What works well for one application may not be ideal for another. Parker’s OSPE product, shown at the bottom, gives the designers the ability to configure slider bearings, roller wheels, re-circulating roller guides or square rail bearings all from the same base product family, to create the ultimate in versatility. The other trick to designing configurability into mechanics is to make them scalable, by scaling appropriate drive train and guidance along with the frame size of the actuator, you’re able to match cost drivers to the required performance. This means, as the frame size increases, so does the guide size and drive train, to give you applicable performance out of the package [inaudible 00:19:04].
Parker’s HMR, shown here again, demonstrates a total of five different frame sizes to cover a range of payload capacities from 400 all the way up to 600 pound. Another means to achieve scale within mechanical stages is through precision. There are multiple ways to modify precision within a linear stage. We’ve already discussed some of which, including drive train and guidance technology. Another means is through utilizing position feedback sensing. One example is that of a linear coder. By ingesting the encoder technology used on the stage, we can achieve varying levels of resolution. In this example, Parker’s MSR stage, which is driven by a linear motor, is able to accommodate various levels of resolution through the use of magnetic or optical encoders, with varying interpolator heads. When an optical encoder is utilized, the interpolator head can be configured to achieve a range from one micron down to ten nanometer resolution.
This means that if a machine builder requires lower resolution today, but then wants higher resolution with the same machine design tomorrow, this is possible without changing our mechanical design. Scalable precision can also be achieved by varying rotary encoder technology or even utilization of resolvers. Additional ways to achieve flexibility within automated components include things like base extrusions that can be designed to support varying application demands. In the image shown in the top right, the HMR actuator features either lower profile option for applications, which the actuator is fully supported, or heavier reinforced extrusions for long unsupported spans. This allows the designer to save cost when the heavy base is unneeded, but allows flexibility when required to have deflection.
Flexibility of the drive train is another commonly utilized feature. For screw actuators, the motor is traditionally inline or melted parallel to the body. In some cases, as with the HMR shown here again, the motor can be mounted parallel in multiple positions about the axis, that is to say top, bottom or either side, providing simplified integration into designs with specific space constraints. Finally, the motor paired with the mechanical stage is commonly configurable. Manufacturers that offer a large variety of mounting options for [inaudible 00:21:11] or numerous motor manufacturers, simplify the design process for machine builders.
With a better understanding of some of the features used to create flexible mechanics, I’d like to review some specific application examples demonstrating specific benefits. The application highlighted on this slide is a vertical form, fill and seal machine. It’s a machine of vertical linear axis that’s needed to position a sealing head over a constant feed of foil. The sealing head seals the bottom of the package, is then quickly filled with product and then the vertical axis matches speed and seals and cuts into individual packages. The challenge here is the package sizes frequently change. To give the machine this level of flexibility, electromechanical automation must be used in order to quickly convert from one package to the other, thereby changing the motion profile of the linear axis.
Menu control through an HMI allows for changing stroke and motion profiles to accommodate multiple different package sizes. Additionally, as this machine builder has multiple different variations of their form, fill and seal machines, they use a number of different sealing heads, all with different payloads. In this case, Parker’s OSPE actuators were designed in as they come in multiple different frame sizes, allowing the machine builder to standardize on one family of products to solve the needs of a variety of machines. Additionally, the OSPE belt version is used in this application to give very high speed motion in the sealing head. Finally, a special plating is used on the OSPE, to give it chemical resistance to the harsh wash-down chemicals used.
In this example, a custom machine builder was tasked with producing a piece of equipment that manufactures a part for an engine for a major tier supplier to the automotive industry. The raw material is fed onto a large turret, which then rotates the parts between multiple stations, performing various tasks. Each of these stations have dramatically varying application demands, with respect to payload capacity, stroke length and motion profile. For a couple of the stations, the required motion was across two axes, requiring a multi-axis stage. Traditionally, to accommodate the application variances, this may have demanded a variety of different product families, or specifying the mechanical solution that could achieve the most demanding application for all of the axes, thus increasing overall cost of the system. I do want to give a special thanks to Franklin Machine in Chicago for allowing us to use their machine example and images here.
In this case, due to the variety of application demands in each station, the HMR product family was the ideal fit. The HMR provides a truly scalable solution, as it comes in five different frame sizes, and in this application that proved to provide true value as four of the five different sizes were used to accommodate the payload variation. Additionally, the HMR is offered with standard multi-axis interface options, to easily accommodate the XY demands within this machine and reduce design complexity for the machine builder. Finally, as the HMR is a highly configurable and offered with interface plates to a variety of motor manufacturers, it simplified the design process in this case by easily accommodating the selective motors for the application.
Shown here is an application with a machine builder that makes additive manufacturing equipment through a special metal deposition process. This machine required three axes in motion in the X, Y and Z, with very stiff guidance and high speed. Additionally, to better support the payload and XX prime, Y and Z gantry configuration was used. This helps reduced the moment condition on the X axis. The Y axis has a long unsupported length requiring high structural rigidity to compensate for potential deflection. Finally, the Z axis needs to fully retract from the addressable workspace, so as not to come in contact with the products built. This means that all axes had varying application demands, which again traditionally may have been addressed by different families of products specifically designed for each requirement.
Parker’s OSPE family was selected for this application. As the OSPE is a scalable actuator design, there are multiple different frame size options that can be configured, which allowed this customer to optimize size and cost by using a small frame size on the X axis and a larger, stiffer axis on the Y to prevent unacceptable deflection. For the Z axis, the OSPE offers a unique option, where the motor is mounted to the actuator carriage and can remain stationary on the Y axis, while the body of the body of the Z axis actuator shuttles in and out. This reduces the moving mass and inertia for the Z axis, allowing for a smaller motor and less overall moment load on the Y axis. OSPE actuators come configurable with a number of different guidance options. In this case, a square rail guide was used to provide the system stiffness needed for the application.
In this application, an equipment builder for the bakery industry was designing a machine for moving uncooked dough through a glazing process prior to positioning it into an oven for baking. This required a system with two axes in motion, Y and Z. Trays of dough come in on a tall rack and are stacked in multiple levels on that rack. The Z axis motion needed to move to multiple shelf positions on the rack where each tray was then pushed off onto the tray bed supported by the Y axis. The tray was positioned to the same height as the glazing head and then the Y axis would push the dough under the glazing head. In this application, the Z axis needs to position in multiple different locations, requiring electromechanical control, whereas the Y axis only positions between two locations.
The OSP line of products provided flexibility to this machine builder as it is offered in both a pneumatic and electromechanical version housed in the same form factor. As the Y axis did not require discreet positional control to more than the two end positions, a pneumatic solution was ideal and reduced system cost. An electromechanical solution was required for the Z. Additionally, as the pneumatic and the electromechanical versions share the same extrusions and mounting parts, the multi-axis interface was greatly simplified by using standard, off-the-shelf bracketry.
We have compared traditional linear mechanical stages to robotic arm systems and contrasted the pros and cons of each. This is an example of how to capitalize on the benefits of both. An articulated arm robot can produce high throughput and reach into workspaces not easily achievable through traditional linear motion. However, the addressable footprint is limited. In this example, the customer was unable to achieve a large footprint required to position between the two machine tool ware stations, raw material storage and finished part inventory vents. By paring the [inaudible 00:28:00] with a linear belt drive axis, we were able to dramatically extend the reach of the arm and accommodate all four work stations. This design would also accommodate future changes as both the robot and actuator can be quickly adapted to accommodate new parts or relocation of either machine or staging elements.
These applications have helped to demonstrate a number of ways that scalable mechanics and more specifically electromechanical motion can aid in designing flexible automation. There are a number of other reasons that the industry is seeing as shift of fully electric control. One major contributor to this trend is due to energy efficiency. As machine users are constantly looking to reduce operating cost, energy usage is one of the first places they look. In many cases, full electro-mechanic automation is not considered because of the higher cost associated with this technology over that of fluid power. However, given that the mechanical efficiency is much greater than that of fluid power and there is no concern of system losses, the overall energy savings can be huge. We have seen numerous cases where the return on the original premium paid for electromechanical control can be recuperated within the first year of implementation, greatly improving the overall cost of ownership for the user.
Another major benefit of electromechanical control already cited in the application examples is that of controllability. Large numbers of applications are migrating to add electric motion over fluid power for the inherent ability to control the motion profile of the system. The application demonstrated in this video shows that concept well. A number of packages are moving down the conveyor line, some of the packages are deemed to be fragile while others are not. With electromechanical control, one can easily adjust the acceleration and force profile to more gently impact the fragile packages, thus reducing damage, but maintain higher speed for the non-fragile packages. Additionally, the motion profile can be set to reach the full speed of the actuator prior to contacting the package, so as not to impart additional acceleration forces. This level of control is not achievable in traditional fluid power [inaudible 00:30:10].
The products and applications shown in this presentation are just part of a broad range of motion control solutions from Parker Hannifin Corporation. Parker Hannifin, based in Cleveland, Ohio, is a global leader in motion control and manufactures technologies ranging from fluid control, including pneumatic and hydraulic motion, aerospace, field technology, climate control, filtration and of course electromechanical automation, among many others. All designed to solve the world’s greatest engineering challenges.
Cleanliness and safety are also major drivers for electrification. Needless to say, within an electromechanical solution, there are no concerns for air or oil leaks. This means no contamination concerns into product or environment. This also lends to better overall efficiency given that oil or air leaks can lead to additional operation of the pump or compressor, and contribute to energy losses. Finally, there are no safety concerns related to high pressure oil line fracturing.
In today’s global economy, providing local support to customers wherever they are around the world is of paramount importance to machine builders. Parker Elite is optimumly suited to support this need. We’ve reached over 50 countries and over 300 manufacturing locations around the globe. By providing both local support to customers and pairing with a portfolio of products that are developed to address regional and global preferences, Parker is an ideal automation partner.
The application examples shown here today provide just a sampling from a number of partners’ scalable and configurable families of products, partners’ many lines of flexible or mechanical solutions including HMR, OSPE and mSR covered here today, as well as HPLA and XR families, are designed to handle the vast range of application demands and the hardest challenges in industry today. These scalable solutions are based on configurable platform of drive trains, guidance and sensing covered in the material today and are ideally suited to address the complex challenges of flexible automation.
In addition to a complete line of mechanical solutions, Parker’s electromechanical and drives division manufactures a full line of industrial servo and [inaudible 00:32:23] drives and VFDs, servo [inaudible 00:32:25] motors and gear heads that can be pre-mounted to the mechanical stage, along with motion and machine controllers and full automation controllers, HMI interfaces and finally a line of industrial [inaudible 00:32:37] framing for guarding or machine frames. All of these components provide Parker Electromechanical with the ability to provide a complete system solution.
Parker Electromechanical’s vision is to provide our customer partners with what we like to call selectable levels of risk reduction. We start with our standard platform products. These are industry-proven highly engineered products available in component form to solve a broad range of application demands. Our next level is based on modified standards, from doing special travel lengths to special motor mount options with unique multi-axis configurations. We can meet the distinct requirements, just outside the scope of our standard portfolio. The top tier of that risk reduction pyramid is based on a clean sheet development effort in partnership with our OEM customers. This requires very tight control of development efforts for a specific stage-gate process, ensuring we guarantee a complete quality solution, specifically designed to solve the challenge in hand.
In addition to a wider range of inner product solutions, Parker Electromechanical is able to extend the value we can provide our customers through an array of value added services. From our precision metrology labs utilizing the latest in laser interferometer technology to inspect for straightness, flatness and precision specifications, to in-house clean room testing, to accelerated life and reliability testing under true application conditions. If you have a need or a problem, just ask. We challenge you to challenge us. I want to remind everyone that there’s a link at the bottom of the page. If you would like to get any further detail on anything covered here today, or any other general electromechanical information. With that, I want to thank you all for your time, and I will turn things back over to Miles. Thanks Miles.
Thanks a lot for that informative presentation, Jeremy. A few more points here before we wrap up. Once again, I’d just like to remind everybody that this webinar will be available at designworldonline.com, also you can feel free to connect with Design World through many of our social media channels, includes Facebook, Twitter, Google+, LinkedIn and others. You can also join us there on the engineeringexchange.com as well.
Once again, I’d like to thank Jeremy Miller from Parker Hannifin for today’s presentation and thanks to everybody for joining us here and hope you have a good rest of the day. Thanks a lot.